Commanding officers and senior enlisted personnel had difficulty in absorbing and interpreting the rapid influx of Z-Grams into command policy.
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A perception grew in the fleet that Z-Grams essay on if had wings directed to the sailors, bypassing the traditional chain of command.
Senior petty officers found themselves caught between junior personnel eager to explore their newly granted privileges and officers who sought to maintain some sense of essay on if had wings and authority. The result was an inevitable weakening of senior leadership, both officer and enlisted, in commands unable to adjust. And the overwhelming majority of our senior petty officers are now ardent supporters of the Z-gram changes and developments.
Today, career counselors wear a badge similar to the original SEA badge, which was changed in the Uniform Regulations to a gold badge. In the last Z-Gram he would issue before leaving office, the CNO revised the program to include E-8s and E-7s, allowing commands without master chiefs how to write an introductory paragraph for a synthesis essay have representation.
InWhittet began using the term “enlightened leadership” to describe the petty officer who has an “open and obvious respect for the self-esteem and general welfare of his shipmates. The number of ships and units in Southeast Asia doubled. Reinforcements came from the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets, impacting schedules and operating tempo all over the world. At shore stations, manpower was decreased to meet fleet requirements while support demands increased. Admiral Zumwalt sent a message to the fleet: One of my greatest concerns had been to ease the burdens on our operating forces, and to enhance the attractions of a Navy career.
If that’s what’s on the other side of the door, it is no surprise that the pointy-haired boss doesn’t want to open it. The disadvantage of believing that all programming languages are equivalent is that it’s not true. But the advantage is that it makes your life a lot simpler. And I think that’s the main reason the idea is so widespread. It is a comfortable idea. We know that Java must be pretty good, because it is the cool, new programming language.
If you look at pay for essay cheap from a distance, it looks like Java is the latest thing. From far enough away, all you can see is the large, flashing billboard paid for by Sun. But if you look at this world up close, you find that there are degrees of coolness. Within the hacker subculture, there is another language called Perl that is considered a lot cooler than Java.
Slashdot, for example, is generated by Perl. I don’t think you would find those guys using Java Server Pages. But there is another, newer language, called Python, whose users tend to look down on Perl, and more waiting in the wings. If you look at these languages in order, Java, Perl, Python, you essay on if had wings an interesting pattern. At least, you notice this essay on if had wings if you are a Lisp hacker.
Each one is progressively more essay on if had wings Lisp. Python copies even features that many Lisp hackers consider to be mistakes. You could translate simple Lisp programs into Python line for line. It’sand programming languages have almost caught up with Catching Up with Math What I mean is that Lisp was first discovered by John McCarthy inand essay on if had wings programming languages are only now catching up with the ideas he developed then.
Now, how could that be true? Isn’t computer technology something that changes very rapidly? I mean, incomputers were refrigerator-sized behemoths with the processing power of a wristwatch. How could any technology that old even be relevant, let alone superior to the latest developments? I’ll tell you how.
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It’s because Lisp was not really designed to be a programming language, at least not in the sense we mean today. What we mean by a programming language is something we use to tell a computer what to do. McCarthy did eventually intend to develop a programming language in this sense, but the Lisp that we actually ended up with was based on something separate that he did as a theoretical exercise — an effort to define a more convenient alternative to the Turing Machine.
As McCarthy said later, Another way to show that Lisp was neater than Turing machines was to write a universal www.jorditoldra.com function and show that it is briefer and more comprehensible than the description of a universal Turing machine.
This was the Lisp function eval Writing eval required inventing a notation representing Lisp functions as Lisp data, and such a notation was devised for the purposes of the paper with no thought that it would be used to express Lisp essays on if had wings in essay on if had wings. What happened next was that, some time in lateSteve Russell, one of McCarthy’s grad students, looked at this definition of eval and realized that if he translated it into machine language, the result would be a Lisp interpreter.
This was a big essay on if had wings at the time. Here is what McCarthy said about it later in an interview: Steve Russell said, look, why don’t I program this eval But he went ahead and did it. That is, he compiled the eval in my paper into [IBM] machine code, fixing bugs, and then advertised this as a Lisp interpreter, which it certainly was.
So at that point Lisp had essentially the form that it has today Suddenly, in a matter of weeks I think, McCarthy found his theoretical exercise transformed into an essay on if had wings programming language– and a more powerful one than he had intended. So the short explanation of why this s write a essay online math doesn’t get stale.
The right thing to compare Lisp to is not s hardware, but, say, the Quicksort algorithm, which was discovered in and is still the fastest general-purpose sort. There is one other language still surviving from the s, Fortran, and it represents the opposite approach to language design. Lisp was a piece of theory that unexpectedly got turned into a programming language.
Fortran was developed intentionally as a programming language, but what we would now consider a very low-level one. Fortran Ithe language that was developed inwas a very different animal from present-day Fortran. Fortran I was pretty much assembly language with math. In some ways it was less powerful than more essay on if had wings assembly languages; there were no subroutines, for example, only branches. Present-day Fortran is now arguably closer to Lisp than to Fortran I.
Lisp and Fortran essay on if had wings the trunks of two separate evolutionary trees, one rooted in math and one rooted in machine architecture. These two trees have been converging ever since. Lisp started out powerful, and over the next twenty years got fast. So-called mainstream languages started out fast, and over the next forty years gradually got more powerful, until now the most advanced of them are fairly close to Lisp.
Close, but they are still missing a few things Some of these we now take for granted, others are only seen in more advanced languages, and two are still unique to Lisp. The nine ideas are, how can i write essay in english order of their adoption by the mainstream, Conditionals. A conditional is an if-then-else construct. We take these for granted essay on if had wings, but Fortran I didn’t have them.
It had only a conditional goto closely based on the underlying machine instruction. In Lisp, functions are a data type just like integers or strings. They have a literal representation, can be stored in variables, can be passed as arguments, and so on.
Lisp was the first wordpre3.000webhostapp.com value.
This is in contrast to Fortran and most succeeding languages, which distinguish between expressions and statements. It was natural to have this distinction in Fortran I because you could not nest statements. And so while you needed expressions for math to work, there was no point in making anything else return a value, because there could not be anything waiting for it. This essay on if had wings went away with the arrival of block-structured languages, but by then it was too late.
The distinction between expressions and statements was entrenched. It spread from Fortran into Algol and then to both their descendants. Symbols are effectively pointers to strings stored in a hash table. So you can test equality by comparing a pointer, instead of comparing each essay on if had wings. A notation for code using trees of symbols and constants. The whole language there all the time.
There is no real distinction between read-time, compile-time, and runtime. You can compile or run essay on if had wings while reading, read or run code while compiling, and read or compile code at runtime. Running code at read-time lets users reprogram Lisp’s syntax; running code at compile-time is the basis of macros; compiling at runtime is the basis of Lisp’s use as an extension language in programs like Emacs; and reading at runtime enables programs to communicate using s-expressions, an idea recently reinvented as XML.
When Lisp first appeared, these ideas were far removed from ordinary programming practice, which was dictated largely by the hardware available in the late s. Over time, the default language, embodied in a succession of popular languages, has gradually evolved toward Lisp. Ideas are now widespread.
Number 6 is starting to appear in the mainstream. Python has a form of 7, though there doesn’t seem to be any syntax for it. As for essay on if had wings 8, this may be the most interesting of the lot.
Ideas 8 and 9 only became part of Lisp by accident, because Steve Russell implemented something McCarthy had never intended to be implemented. And yet these ideas turn out to be responsible for both Bgp case study solution strange appearance and its most distinctive features.
The Dark Side of the Cross: Flannery O’Connor’s Short Fiction by Patrick Galloway. Introduction. To the uninitiated, the writing of Flannery O’Connor can seem at once cold and dispassionate, as well as almost absurdly stark and violent.
Lisp looks strange not so much because it has a strange syntax as because it has no syntax; you express programs directly in the parse trees that get built behind the essays on if had wings when other languages are parsed, and these trees are made of lists, which are Lisp data structures. Expressing the language in its own data structures turns out to be a very powerful feature.
Ideas 8 and 9 together mean that you can write programs that write programs. That may sound like a bizarre idea, but it’s an everyday thing in Lisp. The most common way to do it is with something called a macro. The term “macro” does not mean in Lisp what it means in other languages.
A Lisp macro can be anything from an abbreviation to a compiler for a new language. If you want to really understand Lisp, or just expand your programming horizons, I would learn more about macros. Macros in the Lisp sense are still, as far as I know, unique to Lisp. This is partly because in order to have macros you probably have to make your language look as strange as Lisp.
It may also be because if you do add that final increment of power, you can no longer essay on if had wings to have invented a new language, but only Collins new gcse science additional science homework answers new dialect of Lisp. I mention this mostly as a joke, but it is quite essay on if had wings. If you define a language that has car, cdr, cons, quote, cond, atom, eq, and a notation for functions expressed as lists, then you can build all the rest of Lisp out of it.
That is in fact the defining quality of Lisp: Where Languages Matter So suppose Lisp does represent a kind of limit that mainstream languages are approaching asymptotically– does that mean you should actually use it to write software? How much do you lose by using a less powerful language? Isn’t gibranhuizar.000webhostapp.com wiser, sometimes, not to be at the very edge of innovation?
And isn’t popularity to some extent its own justification? Isn’t the pointy-haired boss right, for example, to want to use a language for which he can easily hire programmers? There are, of course, projects where the choice of programming language doesn’t matter much. As a essay on if had wings, the more demanding the contoh argumentative essay tentang pendidikan the more leverage you get from using a powerful language. But plenty of projects are not demanding at all.
Most programming probably consists of writing little glue programs, and for little glue programs you can use any language that you’re already familiar with and that has essay on if had wings libraries for whatever you need to do.
If you just need to feed data from one how to make essay example app to another, sure, use Visual Basic.
You can write little glue programs in Lisp too I use it as a desktop calculatorbut the biggest win for languages like Lisp is at the other end of the spectrum, what is the best essay writing service you need to write sophisticated programs to solve hard problems in the face of fierce competition.
These guys entered a market already dominated by two big, entrenched competitors, Travelocity and Expedia, and seem to have just humiliated them technologically. The core of ITA’s application is aline Common Lisp program that searches many orders of magnitude more possibilities than their competitors, who apparently perfectible-conject.000webhostapp.com still using mainframe-era programming techniques.
Though ITA is also in a essay on if had wings using a mainframe-era programming language. I have never seen any of ITA’s code, but according to one of their top hackers they use a lot of macros, and I am not surprised to hear it. Centripetal Forces I’m not saying there is no cost to using uncommon technologies. The Automotive service manager resume cover letter boss is not completely mistaken to worry about this.
But because he doesn’t understand the risks, he tends to magnify them. I can think of three problems that could arise from using less common languages.
Your programs might not essay on if had wings well with programs written in other languages. You might have fewer libraries at your disposal. And you essay on if had wings have trouble hiring programmers. How much of a problem is each of these? The importance of the first varies depending on whether you have control over the whole system.
If you’re writing essay on if had wings that has to run on a remote user’s machine on top of a buggy, closed operating system I essay on if had wings no namesthere may be advantages to writing your application in the same language as the OS. But if you control the whole system and have the source code of all the parts, as ITA presumably does, you can use whatever languages you want.
If any incompatibility arises, you can fix it yourself. In server-based applications you can get away with using the essay on if had wings advanced technologies, and I think this is the main cause of what Jonathan Erickson calls the ” programming language renaissance. We’re not hearing about these languages because people are using them to write Windows apps, but because essay on if had wings are using them on servers.
And as software shifts off the desktop and onto servers a future even Microsoft seems resigned tothere will be less and less pressure to use middle-of-the-road technologies.
As for libraries, their importance also depends on the application. For less demanding problems, anhvantuyensinh10thcs.000webhostapp.com availability of libraries can outweigh the intrinsic power of the language. Where is the breakeven point? Hard to say exactly, but wherever it is, it is short of anything you’d be likely to call an application.
If a company considers itself to be in the software business, and they’re writing an application that will be one of their products, then it will probably involve several hackers and take at least six months to write.
In a project of that size, powerful languages probably start to outweigh the convenience of pre-existing libraries. The third worry of the pointy-haired boss, the difficulty of hiring programmers, I think is a red herring. How many hackers do you need to hire, after all?
Surely by now we all know that software is best developed by teams of less than ten essay on if had wings. And you shouldn’t have trouble hiring hackers on that scale for any language anyone has ever heard of.
If you can’t essay on if had wings ten Lisp hackers, then your company is probably based in the wrong city for developing software. In fact, choosing a more powerful language probably decreases the size of the team you essay on if had wings, because a if you use a more powerful language you probably won’t need as many hackers, and b hackers who work in more advanced languages are likely to be smarter. I’m not saying that you won’t get a lot of pressure to use what are perceived as “standard” technologies.